Menu Option: General: Settings


The Settings screen is used to access all of LEAP's settings.  Some of these settings are for the program as a whole; some are settings for individual areas.  You can enter notes describing the area as a whole.  

Check Remember View if you want LEAP to save and restore the view and the branch, variable, scenario and region settings between sessions or when switching areas.

The screen is divided into the following tabs: Scope & Scale, Years, Costs, Calculations, Optimization, IBC, Internet, Mapping, Folders and Scripts. Some of these tabs are only visible when certain options are selected on the Scope & Scale tab.  

Scope & Scale

In the Scope box, select which optional analyses to include in your analysis:

Tip: You can temporarily disable parts of your analysis by unchecking one or more of these options. This will not delete any data, but will speed-up LEAP's calculations. For example, you can disable Transformation & Resources and Environment calculations while debugging a demand analysis.  

In the Results to Save box, choose whether you want LEAP to save all results (the default) or whether you want only a subset of results to be saved.  Choosing the second option results in simpler results screens and slightly faster calculations. If you choose this option, use the General:Results to Save screen to edit which results should be saved.

In the Scale, box select the Area's scale (global, multi-national, national or sub-national) and (for national and sub-national areas) select a pre-defined country name.  Doing this can be useful if you wish to share your data set with other users via the LEAP web site because it will allow the data set to be searched for by other users.  Selecting a pre-defined country is required when running LEAP with the IBC impact calculator extension for a national-scale application, since IBC makes use of this setting to properly select the country for which air pollution transport and impacts are modeled. If using IBC for a multi-national application, you can specify the countries via the Regions screen.

The User Information box displays data about your account on the LEAP web site (if you have registered LEAP online) and provides a link to let you edit your profile on that web site.



Use this tab to set the Base Year, End Year, First Scenario Year and various other important milestone years for your analysis. The Base Year corresponds to the first year for which you have data.  The End Year is the final year of the analysis (the last year calculated).

In some cases you might want to specify a time-series of historical data in Current Accounts (e.g. using an Interp function) and then have the scenarios start in a later year.  For example imagine you have historical data for 1980-2010 and you then want the scenarios all to run from 2011-2040.  In this situation, the Base Year would be set to 1980, and the First Scenario Year to 2011.  Now, when LEAP gets results for scenario years it uses the Current Accounts expressions for the years from the Base Year to the year before the First Scenario Year (1980-2010) and it uses the Scenario expression for the years from the First Scenario Year onwards (2011-2040).  By default, First scenario year is set to the year after the base year.  Note that Growth functions used in scenario expressions will be applied to make values grow exponentially from their values in the year before the First Scenario Year.  

Set First Depletion Year to indicate the first year in which resource reserves are depleted by the primary consumption of fuels calculated in LEAP.  Normally this should be set to be the same as the base year.  However, if your consumption data includes past years of historical data (e.g. 1970-2006), but your reserves data is for some more recent year (e.g. 2005) you should set this to a more recent year.  

Set Last Year to Count Costs to indicate the last year in which LEAP will do cost-benefit accounting.  This can be any year after the base year up to and including the end year.  Any costs after this year are ignored.

LEAP normally performs annual calculations for each year from the Base Year to the End Year. Set the Results Every value if you only want to calculate costs every X years,  This value must be set to 1 (every year) if you want to perform cost and stock turnover calculations.

Tip: to speed-up your calculations when debugging your analyses, you can temporarily specify fewer years for your analysis by reducing the end year or calculate results every 2, 5 or 10 years. This will not affect any data you have entered. See also: Tips on Speeding-Up Calculations


Use this tab to set various calculation settings.  Most users will NOT need to change any settings on this tab.


Use this tab to specify the scope of the cost-benefit calculations in LEAP. This tab is only enabled if Costs are checked on the Scope & Scale tab.

Cost-Benefit Calculation Boundary: LEAP allows you to specify a costing boundary: the Transformation module after which costs associated with energy conversion and extraction are no longer counted. Specifying a limited boundary that does not encompass all modules, can be useful for modeling systems in which you only have data on the costs of fuels as they are consumed, and you do not have data on the costs of upstream technologies such as oil refining and coal mining. For example, you might specify the boundary as electricity production. This means: a) that LEAP will not consider capital and O&M costs for upstream activities (modules) such as oil refining or coal production; and b) that costs will be applied to the feedstock fuels delivered to electricity plants (e.g.,. diesel) rather than to the resources (e.g. crude oil) from which they are produced.

You have two basic options:


Use this tab to review and set up optimization settings. The screen has three options:

The optimization screen also displays a summary of the optimization frameworks installed (OSeMOSYS is installed along with LEAP, while NEMO must be installed separately).  It also summarizes which solvers are installed. OSeMOSYS supports GLPK and CPLEX.  NEMO currently supports GLPK, Cbc, CPLEX, GUROBI and MOSEK and XPress.  GLPK is installed by default.  Cbc and MOSEK are installed along with NEMO (although you must separately purchase and then manually install a license file for MOSEK).  CPLEX and GUROBI must be purchased and installed separately from LEAP and NEMO.

The screen also provides a quick link to let you run the Julia environment used by NEMO.  This option will likely only be of interest to advanced users of NEMO.  Finally, there is an option to reset NEMO. This option will force LEAP to res-can and detect the installed Julia plug-ins used by NEMO.  This option is only required when updating NEMO.

For more information, see the Introduction to Optimization in LEAP.

Handling Insufficient Capacity Additions

In some situations, your calculations may result in insufficient capacity being added to meet demands.  Typically this occurs if you over-constrain your model, for example by specifying overly-restrictive values for the Maximum Capacity or Maximum Capacity Addition variables.  Other model specifications such as including Renewable Targets or Emission Constraints may also cause these problems.  Use this box to choose how to handle these situations.  You have three choices:

    1. Stop calculations and report an error in LEAP (the default setting).

    2. Continue calculations and create a warning diagnostic message in LEAP.

    3. Stop calculations and report an error in NEMO or OSeMOSYS.

Tips: to allow for handling of these errors in LEAP in options 1 and 2 above, LEAP creates a special behind-the-scenes process named "UNSERVED" with very high capital and variable O&M costs.  That process is not visible in the LEAP branch structure: it is only seen by the solver.  If a system is otherwise over-constrained, the solver will then tend to built that UNSERVED process.  This avoids an error being generated in the solver, but LEAP will report an error or a warning if it sees that UNSERVED process being built.  When using option 3, LEAP does not create an UNSERVED process, in which case, if the model is over-constrained, the solver itself will be unable to find a solution and will report an "infeasible solution" error.  Option 3 is less user-friendly, but provides more detailed feedback from each solver.  Option 3 can also be useful in cases where you wish to explicitly model your own "unserved" process within your LEAP model.

IBC: The Integrate Benefits Calculator

Use this tab to edit special settings for IBC: The Integrated Benefits Calculator. This tab is only visible if the IBC setting is enabled and checked on the Scope & Scale tab.  This in turn requires that you have also checked the effects and indicators options. See this page for more information on IBC. There are various settings for IBC:


Use this tab to configure your Internet connection settings.  These settings are primarily used by LEAP when it attempts to check for and download updates over the Internet (the Help: Check On Internet for Updates option).


This tab is only visible if your LEAP area has more than one region or if you have chose the Map Results to Grid option on the Scope & Scale screen. Use this tab to associate your LEAP area with a standard GIS shape file.  You will also need to select the field in the shape file that contains the labels to be displayed on the map.  Shape files are a standard mapping file format used in ArcView and other GIS systems.  Most mapping software is capable of generating and reading shape files.  You can also optionally nominate an image file to use as a background for the map (although LEAP can also use background image tiles via the Internet).   

For multi-regional LEAP areas, once you have selected a shape file and a label field on this screen, you will then need to establish which shape in the shape file corresponds to the regions in your area.  You can do that using the General: Regions screen.  

For single regional LEAP areas, you can select a shape corresponding to you area directly from the Mapping tab.

Each LEAP region (or area) should be mapped to one GIS shape. Therefore, you will need to choose a GIS shape file that has the same level of regional disaggregation as your LEAP area.  For example, if the regions in your area correspond to countries, then you will need a GIS shape file that is also broken down by country.  If your LEAP regions correspond to regions within a country you will need a more disaggregate shape file.

Finally, this tab also allows you to specify the size of cells (in degrees latitude & longitude) for use in calculating and displaying gridded maps. Bear in mind that the smaller the number used here the more grid squares will be generated.  Due to memory constraints, there is a limit on how many grid squares LEAP can work with. The 32-bit version of LEAP is restricted to creating and displaying maps with up to 50 by 50 cells.  The 64-bit version can  create and display maps with up to 300 x 300 cells. We suggest starting with a default resolution of 0.5 degrees.


Use this tab to review and edit the folder used to store LEAP areas.  You will need to restart LEAP before any changes made on this tab take effect.  Note also, that if you change the location of the Areas folder you will also need to copy your areas to that new folder before restarting LEAP.

LEAP will display but will not allow you to edit the Program folder and the settings folder.  These folders are set when first installing LEAP.

You can also create a shared folder on a network drive for quick installation of shared data sets.


Use this tab to control how scripts run on your computer within LEAP.  Scripts are typically ".vbs" files that contain code that is executed on your computer.  

WARNING: Scripts may contain malicious code that can damage your PC. For example, a malicious script could delete files, infect your PC with a virus, or take control of your PC. You should only allow scripts to run if you received your LEAP area from a trusted source or created it yourself.

The default setting for scripts is that LEAP only run scripts that have been digitally signed by SEI. This provides assurance that a script has not been tampered with by anyone outside of SEI. You can change this setting to provide different levels of script security, ranging from never running any scripts (most secure) to running all scripts without confirmation (least secure- not recommended). If you develop your own scripts for internal use, you may want to choose the setting marked "Run unsigned scripts & require approval before running." If you want to distribute your areas to other users and include scripts within those areas, then we recommend that you first digitally sign any scripts. You can do that using Microsoft's SignTool. You will need SignTool in conjunction with a code signing certificate. These are available from a variety of providers, such as COMODO or SECTIGO. Note that all of the sample scripts included with the areas distributed with LEAP (e.g., in the Freedonia and Asiana data sets) are digitally signed.  If you select one of the "Require Approval" settings, LEAP will ask you to grant permission the first time any script is to be executed.  It will then add that script to the list of approved scripts to be run for a given area (shown on this screen).  SEI-signed scripts that form part of the LEAP & IBC code are always run without needing explicit approval.

Refer to the topic on Automating LEAP for more information about scripts.

Finally, the scripts page also lets you set a time limit for script execution.  This can be useful to guard against scripts that lock up and fail to complete their execution a reasonable amount of time.